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Mitral Stenosis

by | 20 May, 2020

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Introduction

Mitral stenosis refers to abnormal narrowing of the mitral valve.

Murmur

Sound: Mid-diastolic murmur, opening snap Loudest region: Mitral area (5th intercostal space, mid-clavicular line) Accentuation: Expiration, lateral decubitus position
middiastolic murmur

Mid-diastolic murmur

Mid-diastolic murmur. Source: University of Michigan Murmur library

Causes

Differential diagnosis

Investigations

  • Echocardiogram
  • ECG: may show atrial fibrillation and p-mitrale (broad, bifid P waves)
  • Chest x-ray
  • Blood cultures, if considering infective endocarditis

Management

Anticoagulation, diuretics and digoxin can be used to medically improve morbidity and mortality in cases involving atrial fibrillation and heart failure. In severe cases, especially in the presence of atrial fibrillation, mitral valvotomy or valve replacement can be offered.

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